The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region North view of the glassworks in Horní Chřibská. Gouache from the beginning of the 19th century. Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
The tradition of glass making in the Lusatian
Mountains is more than seven hundred years old. During its long history there
were several periods when this quiet region in the north of Bohemia went down
in the world history of this extraordinary craft. More serious and intensive
research into the history of glass making in this region has been made from
the early 1960's by Václav Sacher from the Museum of Glass in Nový Bor. His
activities were followed by young and middle-aged generations of researchers.
Medieval Glass Industry
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region View of medieval glassworks. Illumination from Mandevill´s travelogue, Bohemia, before 1420 (British Library, London).
Like other border-forming mountain ranges
in medieval Bohemia, the Lusatian Mountains were a mere abandoned forest. Thanks
to abundant stocks of wood - used as both fuel and a raw material - later owners
of this territory found glass making a suitable way to exploit this otherwise
deserted area. The Lusatian Mountains are further marked with a significant
geological defect known as the 'Lusatian break' which is scattered with quartz
veins. Crushed quartz was one of the basic raw materials used in the melting
of glass. This is why the oldest medieval glass making shops were founded immediately
in those locations rich with necessary raw materials. When the reserves of wood
within accessible reach of a glassworks were exhausted, a new glass making center
was situated further away. Therefore, a typical medieval glassworks changed
its location several times during its existence. It is also assumed that glass
making activities in the Lusatian Mountains were a purposeful vanguard of the
subsequent colonisation of villages. Some villages in this region were founded
directly on the sites previously cleared for the working of glassworks.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Coat of arms of the House of Berk of Dubé (State Regional Archives, Děčín).
The local medieval glassworks were erected
only in areas under the rule of the House of Ronovec, and later by that branch
of their lineage that was known as the Berks of Lipá (of Dubá). This implies
a possible connection of the beginnings of the regional glass industry with
this notable Bohemian dynasty. At the same time the House of Ronovec owned vast
territories spreading from the North of Bohemia to the South of the country,
including areas located in the today's Germany.
The two oldest glassworks were founded in
the middle of the Lusatian Mountains at the southern foot of Bouřný (703 m above
sea level), next to a secluded settlement known as Nová Huť, north of the village
of Svor. Their history dates back to about 1250. Today, these two glassworks
are considered to be the oldest glass-making centers ever situated in Bohemia.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Archeological research of a glassworks site from about 1300, located south of Lesné pod Tolštejnem, work headed by Dr. E. Černá. Photo: L. Hána, 1992.
Other glassworks in the Lusatian Mountains dated back to the turn of the 13th century,
and are found in the vicinity of a settlement called Lesná or of the villages
of Dolní Světlá and Horní Světlá. In the first half of the 15th century glassworks
were established in the western part of the Lusatian Mountains, namely in Doubice
and near Horní Chřibská. These glassworks have been traditionally labeled as
the predecessors of the still fully-functional glassworks in Horní Chřibská,
which is taken for the oldest operating glassworks in Central Europe. However
the year 1414, which is mentioned as its establishment date, is only symbolic
as the precise date of its foundation is not known. Medieval glassworks were
also built on the sites of other villages such as Trávník, Drnovec, Kytlice
(formerly Falknov); in the settlement of Rozhled near Jedlová Mountain
(774 m above sea level); and in the vicinity of Vlčí Hora and Rybniště. The prosperous
business of glass-making was first interrupted by the Hussite Wars, which were
followed by the Wartemberk War with the so-called Six-Towns Alliance of Upper
Lusatia in the 15th century.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Flute-shaped goblet of the so-called Czech type from about 1400 (Museum of Prague). A picture from the book "Bohemian Glass". Crystalex Nový Bor, 1990.
Many more medieval, as
well as later, glassworks are still believed to have existed. These assumptions
are based for instance on local names that are still in use, and on indirect
mentions found in historical sources, etc. The precise locations of these glassworks
is not known, and as such presents a challenge for further research. In those
places where old glassworks used to stand: i.e. in forests, near rivers, or
at sites with disturbed ground surfaces, we can still find small pieces of melted
glass and various fragments of ceramics used for technical and utility purposes.
It is these traces that can lead to the discovery of unknown glassworks.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Votive picture of the family of the glass master Martin Friedrich from the end of the 16th century, originally exhibited in St. George´s Church in Chřibská. Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
During the renaissance, the glass industry of
Venice contributed to improvements in production technologies and to the development
of decorated techniques, the latter referring mainly to enamel painting. Glassworks
were no longer moved towards their sources of wood but had their permanent locations
supported with necessary economic and human resources. Next to the glassworks
in Horní Chřibská, which was managed by the Friedrichs - a traditional family
of glass-masters at that time, a new glassworks was founded by Pavel Schürer
in 1530 at Falknov, today known as Kytlice. Pavel Schürer came to Falknov from
the Saxon side of the Ore Mountains, namely from the small town of Aschberk,
today called Ansprung. Schürer was born into a family that soon became one of
the most famous glass-master families in Bohemia. A few years later, Pavel's
brother Jiří stood as the head of the glassworks near Krompach (before 1549).
From the 1570's, these glassworks became centers of glass decoration by means
of using burnt enamel paints. However, even this type of glass production was
interrupted by the Thirty Years War. Soon after this war ended, the local glass
industry experienced another boom period, this time during the Baroque period.
The Baroque was the period
of the greatest prosperity of glass production in the Lusatian Mountains. However,
compared to the previous years, the core of Baroque production was mainly glass
decorate. In addition to glass painting and cutting, engraving became a widely
applied method. During the Baroque period, the glass decorators from Northern
Bohemia were amongst the-then glass masters who were most sought out for their
exquisite abilities. However, the success of Bohemian Baroque glass-making was
principally contributed to by advanced trading in glass products. The center
for sales was located in this region in the areas surrounding the contemporary
towns of Kamenický Šenov and Nový Bor. From this site Czech glass was exported
to nearly all of Europe, and penetrated even the remote markets of America and
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Goblet of clear glass with a melted ruby thread and engraved decoration. Northern Bohemia around 1700 (The Museum of Glass in Nový Bor). Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
In the 17th century primary glass-working
was separated from glass refining. Local craftsmen obtained glass from glassworks
and decorated it in their own home workshops. This type of production supported
the people living in mountain villages whose modest incomes otherwise depended
exclusively on agriculture. In the second half of the 17th century the first
guild association of glass refiners was established, receiving the support of
the local manorial nobility. At the same time, knowledge of a new type of high-quality
clear glass material known as Czech crystal was spreading. Czech crystal is
a perfect material for refining by means of cutting and engraving with the aid
of rotating copper wheels. Around the year 1700, engraved glass from Northern
Bohemia achieved a level of extraordinary quality which was retained, along
with high sales, throughout the entire first half of the 18th century.
Among Baroque glassworks
the most important was the Rollhütte Shop on the southern slope of Jedlová
(774 m above sea level), which had been run by Jan Kašpar Kittel since about
1724. Managed by this highly-qualified owner, this profitable glass factory
contributed mainly to the development of glass trading. Another glass factory
located in Juliovka at Mařenice was founded in 1687 by Julius Franz, the owner
of the Zákupy estate and the Duke of Saxon-Lauenburg. This was one of the first
glass factories to melt Czech crystal, and perhaps also ruby glass decorated
with gold. During the 18th century, glass-making activities brought about the
loss of timber in local forests, which was reflected in higher prices for wood.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Contemporary view of the site where the "Nová Huť" glassworks used to stand from 1750 - 1873. Picture from the private archives of J. Rež.
This was why a majority of glassworks ceased to exist during the same time period,
and the production of glass was oriented on the refining of glass imported from
other parts of Bohemia and Moravia, the only exceptions being the glassworks
in Horní Chřibská and a newly-founded shop that was later called Nová huť (New
Glassworks). The latter was established in 1750 by the glassmaker Jan Kryštof
Müller in the middle of a forest north of Svor, on the site of a village that
still bears the same name; i.e. Nová huť. Only these two glass factories continued
to work until the second half of the 19th century when wood, whose stock in
this region was exhausted, was replaced by coal.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region A picture of a glass shop. The municipal charter of Bor from the end of the 18th century (District Archives in Česká Lípa). Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
The organisation of trade in glass was absolutely
unique at that time. Traditional trading missions made by individuals were ousted
by new commercial methods as richer farmers and craftsmen from foothill villages
began to establish business associations called 'companies' as early as the
first half of the 18th century. Being mutually bound by contract, they were
able to organise and finance the purchase and transportation of raw materials
more effectively. They further arranged for the refining of glass with local
craftsmen who, as a rule, worked strictly according to a customer's requirements.
The companies then transported finished products to foreign markets where they
were sold. These business companies also established branches called 'factories'
in a majority of important cities and ports in Europe and America. This type
of organised business was first conducted from the villages around Polevsko,
whose number was enlarged in 1757 with the village of Nový Bor, originally called
Haida, and promoted in that same year to the status of a town. Most companies
operated until the 19th century and made this part of the country and the Czech
glass industry famous around the world.
The prosperity of Baroque
glass making is further evidenced by a diverse range of production specialities.
In the mid-18th century a mirror shop was opened under the orchestration of
Count Josef Kinský in his Sloupy dominion. The quality of these manufactured
mirrors soon matched that of the mirrors made in Paris and Venice. Another production
branch developed in this region since the 18th century was the production of
chandeliers, which rose to fame almost immediately. This traditional production
has been maintained in the region until current times. The second half of the
18th century was marked by a crisis mainly caused by a change in customers'
tastes connected with the onset of Classicism, a diminishing interest in engraved
glass, the discovery of English cut lead crystal, and the failure of local businessmen
to conform to new trends. This unfortunate situation was further aggravated
by the blockade of overseas markets during Napoleon's wars. The best craftsmen
were leaving for abroad, leaving behind others to make mostly the cheap glass
affordable for ordinary - mainly village - customers. Only a small group of
those who stayed behind still worked on valuable orders for gold-painted frosted
glass for Oriental markets.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Inkpot of milk glass with enamel painting, manufactured in the Lusatian Mountains. Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Two enamel-painted brandy bottles in Czech colled "prysk", from the 18 th century. A picture from the book "Bohemian Glass". Crystalex Nový Bor, 1990.
Glass In the 19th Century
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Friedrich Egermann, preparatory drawing by J. Z. Quast, 1858. Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
The crisis did not abate until the 1820's
when foreign markets were made accessible again and a new stage of prosperity
began following the signing of the peace treaty in 1815. Coloured glass was
becoming more and more popular. Glass makers in the Czech lands began to experiment
with new types of coloured glass materials and refining technologies. Northern
Bohemia contributed to these new developments, especially through its outstanding
glass technologist, Friedrich Egermann (1777-1864). Egermann, originally trained
as a glass painter, opened his own studios in Polevsko, and later in Nový Bor,
where he invented and developed a number of methods which were a substantial
contribution to an upsurge of local glass making tradition and to growing exports.
His first inventions in the field of decorated glass were: matted, so-called
agate, glass combined with fine painting; and biscuit and mother-of-pearl enamels,
both developed in 1824. Egermann's studio cooperated with the best glass decorators
of that time, and served as a model that stimulated the rise in the quality
of glass blown in the Nový Bor region. In 1818, Egermann introduced yellow staining:
i.e. colouring of the glass surface with ions of silver. In 1820, Egermann developed
so-called lithyaline, which was a new type of multi-coloured glass similar to
precious stones. This glass was later produced and decorated with great success
throughout the entire area. However, he made his most important discovery in
1834 when he introduced red staining (colouring with ions of copper). Staining
decorated mainly by engraving and cutting soon became one of the popular methods
that were characteristic of Nový Bor production. This method has been used up
to the present time. Egermann himself was a recognised professional. Even though
his inventions spread quickly, his own studio in Nový Bor remained among the
most successful glassworks in the region.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Two-piece lithyaline flacon cut and gold-painted flacon; Egermann´s workshop around 1830. A picture from the book "Bohemian Glass". Crystalex Nový Bor, 1990.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Vase of light-blue opaque matted glass decorated with biscuit enamel; Egermann´s workshop in Polevsko before 1820. A picture from the brochure published for the 575th anniversary of the glassworks in Chřibská. Crystalex Nový Bor, 1989.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Goblet with red staining and engraved decoration; Egermann´s workshop after 1830. A picture from the book "Bohemian Glass". Crystalex Nový Bor, 1990.
In the 19th century the
popularity of engraved glass came back. The glass engravers around Nový Bor
and Kamenický Šenov attained great mastery, and many of them asserted their
skills abroad, for instance in France, England, and Sweden. In the second half
of the 19th century, the best masters came together in a famous refinery workshop
erected in Kamenický Šenov by Ludwig Lobmeyr, a Viennese businessman. Regardless
of the customers' changing demands and tastes, local products continued to be
made with the use of traditional methods from the first half of the century,
such as refining by means of various painting techniques, staining, cutting,
and engraving. Inevitably, glass from Northern Bohemia lost its prominent status,
as well as influence, with the world's glass industry.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Plate with engraved decoration of the "Allegory of the Air" made in Kamenický Šenov in 1856 for the company J. and L. Lobmeyr. A picture from the book "Bohemian Glass". Crystalex Nový Bor, 1990.
The second half of the
19th century was further marked by the establishment of the first schools of
glass . The school of glass founded in 1856 in Kamenický Šenov is considered
to be the oldest institution of its type in Europe. Somewhat later, namely in
1870, a similar school was opened in Nový Bor, following in the footsteps of
a no-longer existing Piaristic college, the members of whose Order had aimed
their pedagogical activities toward economics and the glass industry since the
last third of the 18th century. Both schools were strong advocates and propagators
of new artistic views on glass, thus shaping the orientation of the local industry.
In these schools the education has continued until now.
The preservation of the
traditional production of glass in this region is in the hands of the Museums
of Glass in Nový Bor and Kamenický Šenov. The former was established in 1893,
gathering the collections of local glassmakers and traders. Today, this museum
- located in the town square -, offers a rich collection of glass refined through
the use of local traditional methods. The Museum of Glass in Kamenický Šenov
was founded between the two world wars. Its main mission is to document the
development of, and to present, cut and engraved glass from this area, as well
as from the production of the Viennese firm, Lobmeyr. Every three years this
museum hosts a symposium on engraved glass.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Museum of Glass in Nový Bor. Picture from the private archives of J. Rež.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Museum of Glass in Kamenický Šenov. Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
Industrial Expansion in the Second Half of the 19th Century and in the First Half of the 20th Century
In the 1870's this region
witnessed the introduction of the railroad, which made the transportation of
coal - amongst other goods - so convenient. Subsequently coal began to be gasified,
in which form it was used to heat glass furnaces. New technologies were soon
adopted by dynamic businessmen who established a network of new glassworks to
meet the needs of local glass refiners. This initiated a grand expansion of
glassworks' basic industries, along with the establishment of the glassworks
in the Lusatian Mountains and their foothills which did not stop until the economic
crisis of the 1930's, followed by the period of the Second World War. Following
the Second World War, many of these factories were not reopened.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Rudolf Glassworks in Falknov-Kytlice in the 1920´s. Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
Four new glassworks, usually named after
their owners' wives, were established in Falknov-Kytlice: 'Augusta' Glassworks
in 1874, 'Marie' Glassworks and 'Tereza' Glassworks in 1893, and 'Rudolf' Glassworks
in 1900. None of them are in existence anymore. Other glassworks were built
in Kamenický Šenov: 'Rückl' Glassworks, established in 1886 and known today
as Severosklo a.s.; the contemporary glassworks run by the Jílek Brothers, which
was originally put into operation in 1905; and the glassworks in Prácheň near
Kamenický Šenov in 1908. The first glass factory erected in Nový Bor in 1874
was called 'Helena'; however, this factory does not exist any longer too. Another
factory was known as the School Glassworks, operated by a specialised school
of glass making and commissioned in 1910. Nowadays, it serves the needs of the
same school again. In 1913, Flora Glassworks was built. Today it is owned by
the limited liability company, Egermann. In 1893 a glass factory owned by the
Rückl company was founded in Skalice, near Česká Lípa. This factory is still
in operation. In Polevsko, two glassworks were erected: the first, 'Anna', in
1900 (which was later closed down); and the other, 'Klára', in 1907. In 1872,
a glassworks called 'Tereza' was built in Svor (it is currently out of operation),
followed by the Anna Glassworks opened in Dolní Prysk in 1907. The latter is
owned by the joint-stock company, Preciosa. Of 18 glassworks established between
the 1870's and 1930's, only nine have survived to see the year 2000, including
the glassworks in Horní Chřibská which is still fully functional.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region View of the Crystalex glassworks in Nový Bor. Picture from the private archives of M. Gelnar.
The local glass making
industry suffered another bad blow after the Second World War due to the expulsion
of the German population that included a substantial number of qualified craftsmen
and skilled laborers. Mountain glassworks - traditional centers of domestic
refiners - were nearly depopulated. Attempts to renew their prosperity failed,
and the original glass producing villages were turned into recreational and
tourist sites. After the electoral victory of the Communist Party in 1948, the
process of nationalisation merged all functional glass factories into these
so-called nationally-owned companies: Borské sklo in Nový Bor and Lustry in
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Set of glasses manufactured on an automatic production line, contemporary production of Crystalex, Nový Bor. A picture from the book "Bohemian Glass". Crystalex Nový Bor, 1990.
The early 1960's brought another wave of growth in the glass making industry. Indebted
to the economic spirit of that time, Crystalex, a large-scale capacity workshop
for glass production and refining, was built in 1967 in Nový Bor. Five years
later, Kamenický Šenov became the seat of a similar factory manufacturing chandeliers.
Today, this company is known as the joint-stock company, Preciosa Lustry. Mechanical
production began to be widely employed. In the 1970's, Crystalex introduced
the automatic production of glasses, the most successful series of which have
stayed in production until now. In the 1980's, local glass making began to regain
its lost prestige at the IGS international symposiums organised in a grand style
by Crystalex. The results of these events are included in a permanent collection
exhibited at the Lemberk Castle near Jablonné v Podještědí.
Beginning in the mid 1950's,
the then-Czechoslovak glass industry began to participate in world exhibitions.
Czechoslovak glass scored great successes, for instance, at these prestigious
exhibitions: the Exhibition in Milano; Expo 1958 in Brussels; exhibitions in
Sao Paolo, Brasil, Delhi, India, New York and Corning, America; Expo 1967 in
Montreal; and Expo 1970 in Osaka. Each of these events presented, among others,
glass created by leading artists from Nový Bor.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region AJETO glass workshop in Lindava. Picture from the private archives of J. Rež.
Following the fall of communism in 1989,
private business activities began to flourish, and the structure of communist-type
companies began to change. Like in the old days, Nový Bor and its environs witnessed
the rise of home-workshops of many glass artists, engravers, and cutters. Small
melting furnaces were introduced as a new means of production. Replicas and
imitations of old glass patterns and styles became highly fashionable. Once
again, both schools of glass apperientice, along with the glass school in Nový
Bor, asserted their irreplaceable positions. A number of galleries were opened,
especially in Nový Bor. The outstanding quality of craftsmanship lives through
glass studios led by the famous AJETO glassworks in nearby Lindava.
The glass industry lives
on in the Lusatian Mountains. It always was, and still is, in the hands of the
skillful and talented people settled in this picturesque corner of Northern
Bohemia. We believe this will also be true in the future.
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region Site bearing obvious terrain relics of a 19th century glass furnace in Nová Huť (overgrown mound in the background). Picture from the private archives of J. Rež.
Those who are interested in obtaining detailed
information on this subject can be recommended to the reference literature given
below. Unfortunately, the majority of the books on this list are in Czech. The
only work that was translated into English is: České‚ sklo, Tradice a současnost
(Bohemian Glass, Tradition and The Present) by A. Langhamer and V. Vondruška,
published in 1991 by Crystalex, Nový Bor. Some information in English and German
can be obtained at the glass museums in Nový Bor and Kamenický Šenov. I would
like to underline that the chapter on the glass-making history of this region
is far from being complete, and that it is mainly a number of presupposed old
glassworks from the time period between the Middle Ages and the 18th century
that are yet to be found. With a little bit of luck anyone can encounter the
relics of the old glass makers' activities that are hidden in the Lusatian forests
and villages. Therefore we wish to ask those who would make such a finding to
contact us please see our contact information). We will
also be grateful for any other information, comments, inquiries, or ideas that
may further improve this work.
April 2000, Nový Bor
Jaroslav Rež in cooperation with Michal Gelnar
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region
The History of Glass in the Lusatian Mountain Region
1996: Turistická mapa Lužické hory 1: 75000; Geodézie ČS a.s., 1. vydání.
Bárta, J., 1931: Životopis Jiřího Františka Kreybicha, Sklářské rozhledy, roč.VIII, č.3-5.
Bárta, J., 1931: Sklářské obchodní "kompanie", Sklářské rozhledy, roč.VIII, č.7-10.
Bárta, J., 1935: Staré skelmistrovské rody, Sklářské rozhledy, roč.XII, s.71-72, 90-92.
Bárta, J., 1940: Staré skelmistrovské rody, Sklářské rozhledy, roř.XVII, č.9-10.
Braunová, H. - Rydlová, E., 1998: Sklářské muzeum v Kamenickém Šenově, Umění a řemesla, roč.39, č.3, s.14-17.
Brožová, J., 1972: Bedřich Egermann 1777-1864 a severočeské sklo jeho doby; Sklářské muzeum v Novém Boru.
Brožová, J., 1974: Lithyaliny a Friedrich Egermann, Ars vitraria,č.5.; Muzeum skla a bižuterie Jablonec n. Nisou.
Černá, E., 1987: Příspěvek k podobě zaniklých středověkých skláren v Čechách; Archeologia historica 12/87, Brno, s.405-411.
Drahotová, O., 1985: Evropské sklo; Artia, Praha.
Gelnar, M., 1996a: Staré sklárny Krásnolipska, Antique č.4, roč.III, s.47-49.
Gelnar, M., 1996b: Sklářské hutě v Lužických horách a v jejich podhůří, Bezděz, 4, s.37- 74.
Gelnar, M., 1997: Sklářské hutě středověku na Českolipsku a Děčínsku, část 1., Bezděz, 6, s.41-60.
Gelnar, M., 1999: Sklářské hutě středověku na Českolipsku a Děčínsku, část 2., Bezděz, 8, v tisku.
Jindra, V., 1991 a následující: Dějiny Nového Boru a jeho obcí. Novoborský měsíčník, příloha, Nový Bor 1991.
Jindra , V. - Ranšová, E., 1993: Sklářské muzeum v Novém Boru, katalog, Praha.
Klos, R. - Němeček, F., 1977: Skalní hrady v Českém Švýcarsku; Severočeské nakl.
Klos, R., 1997: Přehled dějin města Krásná Lípa s okolím do třicetileté války. Krásná Lípa.
Langhamer, A., 1991: Střední uměleckoprůmyslová škola sklářská v Kamenickém Šenově, katalog.
Langhamer, A. - Vondruška, V., 1990: České sklo, Tradice a současnost; Crystalex, Nový Bor.
Lukáš, V., 1974: Die nordböhmische Glashütte mit ältester Tradition I., II.; Glasrevue, č.9, 1974, s.18-21, č.11,1974, s.17-21.
NN, 1997: Lustry a lampy ze severních Čech, Antique, roč.IV, č.11, s. 26-27.
Sacher, V., 1964: 550 let sklárny ve Chřibské; Liberec, Nový Bor.
Sacher, V., 1965: Sklářské muzeum v Novém Boru; Muzeum skla a bižuterie v Jablonci n. Nisou.
Sovadina, M., 1997: Ronovci a Žitava ve 13. a v první polovině 14. století, Bezděz, 6, s.7-18.
The use of the pictures published herein was approved by their owners:
Crystalex a.s. Nový Bor - Promotional Department
The Museum of Glass in Nový Bor
State Regional Archives in Litoměřice, Děčín branch
State District Archives in Česká Lípa
Other graphic materials came from the private archives of M. Gelnar and J. Rež. All copyrights reserved.
Nový Bor, graduated from the High School of Glass Industry in Kamenický Šenov;
currently attends West Bohemian University in Pilsen.
Nový Bor, part-time teacher at the High School of Glass Industry and at the
Professional School of Glass, both in Nový Bor; published several studies
on glass making, especially with regard to the Lusatian Mountains.
P.O. Box 92, 473 01 Nový Bor, CZ
Copyright (c) Jaroslav Rež, Michal Gelnar 2000